At Last! The full Disputation translated from the English of then to the English of now...
The Results of the Disputations of the Synod or Assembly
at Cambridge, New-England
Regarding The Power of the Civil Magistrate in Matters of the First Table
On July 1, 1646 a Synod met at Cambridge, Massachusetts to discuss the question:
Does the Civil Magistrate have power to 1. Command or forbid things respecting the outward man in matters of religion, or the first table, which are clearly commanded and forbidden in the word, and to 2. Inflict suitable punishments according to the nature of the transgression against the same [the first table transgressions], and all this with reference to godly peace?
Their answer and the arguments behind it are found here.